Adding elements to lists

As we saw in the introduction, Lists are mutable collections. That means we can modify lists, and one of the most common modifications is adding things to them. We can add elements in different positions, but the most common operation is adding elements "at the end". For that, we use the append method:

my_list = ['a', 'b', 'c']

# Append an element (add at the end)
my_list.append('d')

print(my_list)  # ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']

In this example we've just "mutated" (modified) my_list and added the element 'd' at the end of it (we've "appended" it).

We can also add elements at the beginning of the list with the insert method:

my_list = ['a', 'b', 'c']

# Insert Z at the beginning of the list
my_list.insert(0, 'Z')

print(my_list)  # ['Z', 'a', 'b', 'c']

As you can see in our previous example, the insert method receives two parameters: the first one is the "position" to insert the element (0 in our example) and the second one is the actual element to insert (Z). That means that insert can be used not only to insert elements at the beginning of a list, but in any position. Example:

my_list = ['a', 'b', 'c']

# Insert X in position 1
my_list.insert(1, 'X')

print(my_list)  # ['a', 'X', 'b', 'c']

# Insert Y in position 3
my_list.insert(3, 'Y')

print(my_list)  # ['a', 'X', 'b', 'Y', 'c']

As you can see from these examples, we're using integers to specify the positions, which start counting from 0 (0 is the first position). We'll learn more about this in the " Indexing" section later.

You can also "simulate" the append method using the insert method by computing the correct position. Check the following example:

list_1 = ['a', 'b', 'c']
list_2 = ['a', 'b', 'c']

list_1.append('X')
list_2.insert(3, 'X')

print(list_1)  # ['a', 'b', 'c', 'X']
print(list_2)  # ['a', 'b', 'c', 'X']

The trick is calculating the right position for insert, which in the case of the last one, is just the length of the list, which you can dynamically get with the "total length" of the list:

list_1 = []

list_1.insert(len(list_1), 'a')
print(list_1)  # ['a']

list_1.insert(len(list_1), 'b')
print(list_1)  # ['a', 'b']

list_1.insert(len(list_1), 'c')
print(list_1)  # ['a', 'b', 'c']

Pay attention to the position in our previous example, it's always the length of the list computed dinamically with the len function.

IMPORTANT: Even though you can "replicate" the functionality of append using insert + len, if you want to add an element to the end of a list ("append it"), prefer the append method. It's a lot more clear and explicit.